Sampling design and recruitment

Each round regarding the IBBSS utilized respondent sampling that is driven to your concealed nature of MSM and so enables contrast between and across rounds. Respondent sampling that is drivenRDS) happens to be described in more detail in past studies 22, 23. Fleetingly, RDS is a modified chain referral sampling that is non-random of recruitment that adjusts for the non-randomness employing a mathematical model that loads each sample recruited 23. Inclusion criteria ended up being male aged 16 years and above with a brief history of dental and/or anal contact that is sexual another man into the six months before the study. Known MSM, designated as “seeds” began the chain associated with recommendation use and network vouchers to recruit their peers in to the research. Ten seeds had been chosen for every circular and seeds had been diversified by age, academic status and status that is socioeconomic. In order to prevent an over-representation of MSM with comparable attributes, vouchers limited by three per recruit was utilized 23, 24. In addition, in order to avoid perform enrollment, just one screener had been utilized, only 1 individual had been authorized to reimburse MSM who had effectively recruited their peers and just one location had been utilized. Each voucher ended up being yielded and redeemable N500 approx. $3 USD as a motivation for participating, with an extra N500 provided to a recruit for every successful extra participant. Total payment had been restricted to a compensation that is maximum of approximately $12 USD. Test size for the 2007 IBBSS ended up being believed predicated on a thought HIV prevalence of 15%, a design effectation of 2.0 and amount of precision of 0.05. For the 2010 and 2014 IBBSS, test size had been projected to identify a 10% differ from the subsequent round.

Data collection

Structured close-ended interviewer administered questionnaires elicited information on socio-demographic faculties, form of intercourse partners and intimate danger habits. Interviews had been carried out in MSM friendly companies identified in each one of the research states. Transactional sex had been examined both with feminine and partners that are male. Kind of rectal intercourse practiced ended up being classified as “insertive penile intercourse” or “receptive penile intercourse” in past times a few months. HIV danger perception had been evaluated by asking MSM “do you’re feeling you may be vulnerable to disease with HIV? ” with reaction choices being “yes or no”. Consistent condom use with intimate lovers during transactional and non-transactional intercourse had been examined by asking the concerns “how frequently did you or your male partner make use of condom each time you had intercourse within the last few 6 months? ” while condom usage at final intercourse ended up being evaluated by the concern “the last time you’d rectal intercourse did you or your partner work with a condom? ”. Transactional sex ended up being evaluated by asking “have you received gift or money in exchange for sex within the last a few months? ” Penned consent had been acquired from all participants both for behavioural and biological aspects of the study.

Laboratory testing

Detection of HIV during most of the studies ended up being regularly carried out by rapid test utilizing whole bloodstream samples acquired from the hand prick. On the basis of the nationwide HIV assessment guideline, a synchronous algorithm of Determine (Alere health, United States Of America) and Unigold (Trinity Biotech, Plc, Bray, Ireland) had been utilized to determine HIV sero-positivity while status of discordant tests had been verified if you use Stat Pak (Chembio Diagnostic techniques, ny, United States Of America).

Data administration and analysis

Data from each research state had been entered CS that is centrally using Pro 3.2 and 25% of questionnaires underwent double-data entry to make certain information quality. Behavioural and biological information had been connected by study unique recognition quantity for every participant. Information from each round had been merged and analyzed STATA that is using 14.0 Corporation). Descriptive statistics of demographic, behavioural, and biological factors had been carried out. The Cochran-Armitage Chi Square trend test had been utilized to compare differences when considering categorical factors across various rounds of IBBSS, whilst the Kruskal-Wallis test ended up being utilized to compare variations in constant factors across various rounds of IBBSS. To determine associations between HIV and predictor variables (Tables), bivariate regression that is logistic had been carried out with p value ?0•2 designated as the cutoff for inclusion in multivariate logistic regression models. Factors were retained when they attained a p value ?0•05 within the multivariate analysis. The predictor variables were according to information from literary works that revealed a link involving the factors and HIV.


Table 1 highlights the sociodemographic information of MSM over the three rounds for the IBBSS. A complete of 897, 1545 and 3611 MSM had been surveyed in 2007, 2010 and 2014 correspondingly. Lots of the participants had been aged 20–24 years in 2007 (61%) and 2014 (46%), whilst in 2010, almost half (47%) for the participants were 25 years or older. Over 85% regarding the participants had never hitched in each round of this study. Most of the participants had finished at the very least additional degree training, and also this ended up being greatest among participants in 2007 with 63per cent followed closely by respondents in 2014 (55%).

Intimate danger Behaviours

The median amount of insertive anal lovers ended up being constant between 2007 and 2010 with about 50% associated with the participants reporting insertive anal sex (IAS) with at the least two lovers interquartile range (IQR 1–4) within the last six months. For receptive anal sex (RAS), a median of two partners that are sexual reported in 2007 although it had been one partner both in 2010 and 2014. Overall, about a third had engaged in transactional intercourse in 2007 (95% self- confidence period (CI): 30–36%) and 2014 (32–35%), whilst it was about two-fifths this year (36–41%). Consistent condom use, whenever intercourse ended up being offered increased steadily from 35% (27–44%) to 79per cent (74–83%) between 2007 and 2014. Similarly, constant condom use within the last six months ahead of the study during paid intimate encounters increased from 35% (30–41%) in 2007 to 61per cent (58–64%) in 2014. For non-commercial lovers, constant condom usage increased from 32per cent (29–36%) in 2007 to 51per cent (49–53%) in 2014. For self-reported experiences of sexually transmitted illness (STI), there is a growth from 7% (5–9%) in 2007 to 15per cent (13–17%) this year and 19per cent (17–20%) in 2014.

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